· Man power requirements compelled the British to pass the ‘Indian Defence Force Act’ in 1917 which provided for creation of the University Corps (UC) as a constituent of the British Indian Defence Forces.
· In 1920, Territorial Force Units were introduced as the second line of defence, after the regular Army. Territorial force units consisted of Provincial Units, Medical Units, Urban Units and the University Corps (UC’; the University Corps (UC) was re-designated as University Training Corps (UTC).
· In 1925, “Sandhurst Committee” was set up to consider induction of Indian aspirants for Kings Commission, as also to establish a Military Academy in India. The committee recommended that the UTC be regarded as suitable, for training of the Officer Cadre, of Indian Army.
· Due to the aforementioned recommendation, ‘UTC’ gained significant importance and many prominent persons such as Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Mr Moraji Desai, Air Marshal Subroto Mukherjee, Gen TN Rana, MVC, and so on, were members of UTC as college students.
· In 1942, during the Second World War, UTC was re-designated as University Officers Training Corps (UOTC). However, members of UTOC who were aspirants for ‘Kings Commission’ were found to be lacking many essential qualities, essential for a Defence Forces Officer .
· Hence, a Committee was appointed on 15 Jul 1946 to study and recommend for the establishment of a pan-India Cadet Corps, at both School and College levels. Lt Col Iskander Mirza ( who later went on to become President of Pakistan)was nominated as the Chairman.
· Later on Pandit Hridaynath Kunzru was made the chairman and Lt Col Iskander Mirza was the made vice chairman.
AIMS ENVISAGED FOR THE PROPOSED ORGANISATION
· Development of Leadership, character, comradeship and the ideal of service.
· The stimulation of interest in the defence of the country to the widest possible extent.
THE KUNZRU COMMITTEE
· Between July 1946 and March 1947, various sub committees of the Kunzru committee toured India.
· One sub committee went to both UK & France, to study Cadet organisations in particular, and ‘Youth Movements’ in general, of those countries.
OBSERVATIONS MADE IN UK BY THE KUNZRU COMMITTEE
· Cadet organisations exist only for boys above 14 yrs.
· They were Educational and voluntary in nature.
· Both the Defence Services HQs & Education Ministry, actively involved in the functioning of the Cadet organizations, by way of providing finances, as well as instructors for technical training.
*Recommendations of Kunzru committee were generally based on British models and were as under:-
■ To be designated as ‘National Cadet Corps’.
■ To have 3 Divisions.
■ Junior Division for Schools.
■ Senior Division for Colleges. In place of UOTC.
■ To have Girls Division.
■ Intial strength to be only 1, 27000.
■ To be Voluntary
■ No service liability.
■ SD to have 3 Wings
Army, Navy, Air Force.
For overseeing implementation, a Secretariat composing of all branches of Armed Forces under the over-all executive control of Defence Ministry.
For Coordination & Control Central & Regional Advisory Committees, as under, to be set up.
CENTRAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
■ DEF MINISTER- President
1. Three Service Chiefs.
2. Reps from the Min of Edn.
3. Six Non-official members.
■ On 16 Jul 48, NCC formed under an Act of Parliament.
■ Colonel GG Bewoor was the first Director who translated the recommendations of the Kunzru Committee into actions. He enunciated the First Set of Aims of NCC as under :-
1. To develop character, comradeship, the ideal of service and capacity for leadership in young men and women.
2. To provide Service Training to young men and women so as to stimulate interest in the defence of the country.
3. To build up a reserve of manpower to enable the Armed Forces to expand in a national emergency
■ In 1949 Girls Wing formed.
■ In 1950 Air Wing formed.
■ In 1952 Naval Wing formed.
■ Earlier, while elementary military training was given to School students, College students were trained as potential Officers. Hence Units of Armoured Corps, Artillery, Engrs, Signals, Infantry and Medical Units introduced into NCC, on the lines of Army.
■ 1952, the NCC curriculum extended to include Community Development as part of NCC Syllabus.
■ In 1952, Auxiliary Cadet Corps (ACC) established as a suppliment to the Junior Division, to meet the pressing demand for more Junior Division units. Motto of ACC was : “ Service to the Country”.
■ Due to the over-whelming demand for NCC Units in Schools and colleges, another Organisation named NCC Rifles (NCCR) was introduced in 1960, for larger coverage at a lesser cost. Coympanies were commanded by teachers. 15 Coympanies under a Group HQ was commanded by an Army Officer of the rank of Major.
■ After the 1962 Chinese aggression, NCC made compulsory in 1963. Kerala was the first state to implement it.
■ NCCR merged with NCC in 1964.
■ However, due to resistance by students and adverse reports by some Vice Chancellors’, enrolment in NCC reverted to its earlier voluntary status in 1964.
THE MAHAJANI COMMITTEE
■ In 1972, it was felt that every component of NCC had atrophied and there was a need to re-evaluate it to make it more cost effective and efficient.
■ Hence Mahajani Commiittee set up.
■ Mr Mahajani was the VC of Pune University.
■ Unlike the Kunzru Committee, Mahajani Committee had only one Service officer as a member.
STIPULATIONS TO MAHAJANI COMMITTEE
■ To evaluate the NCC Programme since its inception, with specific reference to whether its ‘Aims and Objectives’ achieved or not.
■ To recommend necessary changes in the Aims and objectives, organisation and training as also the consequential financial/administrative arrangements to be incorporated to implement the recommendations.
Committee submitted it’s Report in 1974.
REVISED AIMS FOR THE NCC AS FORMULATED BY THE MAHAJANI COMMITTEE
1.Development of leadership, character, comradeship, spirit of sportsmanship and the ideal of Service.
2 To create a force of disciplined manpower, which in a national emergency could be of assistance in the defence of the country.
3. To provide training for students with a view to devp in them OLQ’s thus [also]* enabling them to obtain commissions in the Armed Forces.
* the word ‘also’ was inserted by the Ministry of Defence in 1976 as it was perceived that defence of the country is the responsibility of the entire nation and the primary aim of NCC should no longer be to create a trained and disciplined reserve of manpower for the Armed Forces.
OTHER HIGHLIGHTS OF THE MAHAJANI COMMITTEE REPORT
■ Enrolment be selective: Strictly be in accordance with Physical Fitness Criterion as laid down in the NCC Act and selection be made harder, to admit only the very best.
■ Reduce strength of SD and reciprocally increase strength of JD.
■ Increase strength of JW and SW.
■ Since NCC is controlled by the Ministry of Defence at the Centre and the Education Ministry in the states, desirable to hold joint conferences of the state representatives and Director General NCC, regularly.
FURTHER REVISION OF THE AIMS OF NCC
Another critical examination of the existing Aims was done by the development Committee-1998 and the following revised Aims were adopted :-
■ To develop leadership, character, courage, comradeship, discipline, sportsmanship and the ideals of selfless service and National integration among the youth, thus preparing them to take their rightful place as patriotic citizens of India in all walks of life.
■ To create a human resource of disciplined, trained and motivated youth always available for the service of the nation.
■ To create suitable environment to motivate the youth to take up a career in the Armed Forces.
AIMS OF NCC : YET AGAIN REVISED FOR THE IVth TIME
The Aims of NCC, revised for the 4th time and currently applicable are as follows :-
(a) To develop qualities of character, courage, comradeship, discipline, leadership, secular outlook, spirit of adventure & sportsmanship and the ideals of selfless service among the youth to make them useful citizens.
(b) To create a human resources of organized, trained and motivated youth to provide leadership in all walks of life including the Armed Forces and always available for the service of the Nation.
(c) To create suitable environment to motivate the youth to take up a career in the Armed Forces.